Leadership is in the eye of the beholder: How images of leadership that people have differ across the organization

By William A. Gentry, Jennifer J. Deal, Marian R. Ruderman, & Kristin L. Cullen
Center for Creative Leadership

A. M. Greenhalgh & C. Maxwell
University of Pennsylvania

Summary

Images can be instructive for identifying and articulating our assumptions about leadership. They can help clarify what you expect of yourself as a leader – and help you see how differently people may expect leaders to behave. This paper reports the findings of research with 443 professionals, 1,673 upper-middle-level managers, and 544 top-level executives (e.g., CEO, presidents) who chose a picture closest to their image of leadership.

Citation

Gentry, W. A., Deal, J. J., Ruderman, M. R., Cullen, K. L., Greenhalgh, A. M., & Maxwell, C. (2014). Leadership is in the eye of the beholder: How images of leadership that people have differ across the organization [White paper]. Greensboro, NC: Center for Creative Leadership. https://doi.org/10.35613/ccl.2014.2034

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