Studies of managerial work: Results and methods

By Morgan W. McCall, Jr., Ann M. Morrison, & Robert L. Hannan
Center for Creative Leadership


This is a review of diary and observational studies of managerial work. It attempts to answer some of the questions about what managers do and to examine some of the ways of studying managerial behavior. Interviews, survey, diary, and observational techniques for studying managerial work are compared, and the strengths and weaknesses of the direct methods are contrasted. The implications of the studies and methods are broad. Several areas requiring more research are highlighted; some explanations for typical managerial problems are offered; and changes in training, appraisal, and selection practices are suggested.


McCall, M. W., Jr., Morrison, A. M., & Hannan, R. L. (1978). Studies of managerial work: Results and methods (Technical Report No. 9). Center for Creative Leadership.

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